Kamis, 30 Desember 2010

A New Form of Chlorophyll


Researchers may have found a new form of chlorophyll, the pigment that plants, algae and cyanobacteria use to obtain energy from light through photosynthesis. Preliminary findings published August 19 in Sciencesuggest that the newly discovered molecule, dubbed chlorophyll f, has a distinct chemical composition when compared with the four known forms of chlorophyll and can absorb more near-infrared light than is typical for the photosynthetic pigments. Chlorophyll f, which was extracted from cultures of cyanobacteria and other oxygenic microorganisms, may allow certain photosynthetic life forms to harvest energy from wavelengths of light that many of their competitors cannot use.
"This is the most red-shifted chlorophyll we have found in nature," says Min Chen, a biologist at The University of Sydney in Australia and lead author of the study. "That means that organisms that have this chlorophyll inside can extend their photosynthetic range for maximum use of solar energy."
Some photosynthetic bacteria are known to use infrared light, but—in contrast to plants and cyanobacteria—these microorganisms do not produce oxygen. Instead, they rely on anoxygenic photosynthesis, which can function on the low-energy photons provided by infrared light. "Nobody thought that oxygen-generating organisms were capable of using infrared light, because the kind of photosynthesis that actually produces oxygen is thought to require a greater amount of photon energy from visible light," says Samuel Beale, a molecular biologist at Brown University whose work centers in part on chlorophylls. "I think what they found here is a new modification of chlorophyll that shows the flexibility of photosynthetic organisms to use whatever light is available."
Robert Blankenship, a photosynthesis expert at Washington University in St. Louis, agrees that the discovery is significant. "I think this is a very important new development and is the first new type of chlorophyll discovered in an oxygenic organism in sixty years," he wrote via e-mail.
Other researchers are more cautious about the findings. John Clark Lagarias, a molecular biologist at the University of California, Davis, points out that earlier research suggests some oxygen-producing cyanobacteria can harvest energy from near-infrared light using chlorophyll d—one of the four known varieties of chlorophyll, which also include chlorophylls a, b and c. But the new paper still interests Lagarias: "It's an exciting potential discovery, and if it's true it provides a second example of a red-shifted-chlorophyll-containing organism," he says. "We don't know for sure that it's used for photosynthesis, but we know it's absorbing light and it's likely to be involved in photosynthetic apparatus somehow. It could be a bona fide new form of chlorophyll that exists in something living."
In July 2008, Min's colleagues collected samples of stromatolites—structures formed from layers of cyanobacteria, calcium carbonate and sediments— and microbial mats from Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia, which is known to contain some of the most diverse and oldest stromatolites in the world. Cyanobacteria and other microorganisms build stromatolites in shallow water as they grow, gradually trapping and binding sediments into the small rock-like towers and mounds. Chen ground up the samples in a mortar and pestle and cultured the microorganisms in petri dishes under continuous illumination by near-infrared LEDs. Eventually, only microorganisms like cyanobacteria capable of photosynthesis using near-infrared light survived in the cultures.

APA ITU K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL?K-Liquid Chlorophyll adalah minuman kesehatan (Herbal Drink) yang bahan utamanya adalah sari klorofil dari daun Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), suatu herbal bernilai nutrisi tinggi.KOMPOSISI:Sari Daun Alfalfa yang mengandung : Sodium, Copper, Chlorophyllin, Vit A, B-Complex, C, E, Calsium, Magnesium, Pospor, Asam Amino, Alpha & Beta Carotine + UIE (Universe Induce Energy).MANFAAT/KEGUNAAN:Sebagai Anti Oxidant, baik untuk kesehatan mata, paru-paru, lambung, pencernaan dll.Satu sendok makan K-Liquid Chlorophyll sama dengan 1 Kg sayur.Memperlancar dan membersihkan darah dari segala bentuk racun dan zat kimia dalam tubuh.Berfungsi sebagai anti kanker.Menjaga keseimbangan Hormon dan keasaman dalam tubuh.Menghalangi pertumbuhan bakteri dan mempercepat penyembuhan luka.Meningkatkan daya serap nutrisi dan energi.FUNGSI UTAMA K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL:CleansingMembersihkan sistem pencernaan, membersihkan darah, membunuh bakteri, mencegah infeksi dan detoksifikasi.BalancingMenyeimbangkan kadar asam dan Alkali di dalam tubuh.NourishingMeregenerasi sel darah merah dan menstimulasi regenerasi sel.PETUNJUK PEMAKAIAN:Larutkan 1 (satu) sloki/sendok makan dalam segelas air putih.Untuk anak-anak dibawah umur 12 tahun cukup larutkan 1/2 (setengah) sloki atau 1 (satu) sendok teh K-Liquid Chlorophyll.Minum 3 (tiga) gelas sehari.(sebelum makan/perut kosong).KEMASAN:1 botol isi 500ml Ekstrak Chlorophyll.UNTUK BELANJA ONLINE KLIK www.binmuhsingroup. UNTUK PEMESANAN HUBUNGI :HP: 085227044550 Tlp: 021-91913103 SMS ONLY: 081213143797@MyYM @MyFacebook @MyTwitter @MyYuwie @MyFriendsterbinmuhsin_group@yahoo.co.id

Absolute Configuration and the Structure of Chlorophyll

APA ITU K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL?K-Liquid Chlorophyll adalah minuman kesehatan (Herbal Drink) yang bahan utamanya adalah sari klorofil dari daun Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), suatu herbal bernilai nutrisi tinggi.KOMPOSISI:Sari Daun Alfalfa yang mengandung : Sodium, Copper, Chlorophyllin, Vit A, B-Complex, C, E, Calsium, Magnesium, Pospor, Asam Amino, Alpha & Beta Carotine + UIE (Universe Induce Energy).MANFAAT/KEGUNAAN:Sebagai Anti Oxidant, baik untuk kesehatan mata, paru-paru, lambung, pencernaan dll.Satu sendok makan K-Liquid Chlorophyll sama dengan 1 Kg sayur.Memperlancar dan membersihkan darah dari segala bentuk racun dan zat kimia dalam tubuh.Berfungsi sebagai anti kanker.Menjaga keseimbangan Hormon dan keasaman dalam tubuh.Menghalangi pertumbuhan bakteri dan mempercepat penyembuhan luka.Meningkatkan daya serap nutrisi dan energi.FUNGSI UTAMA K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL:CleansingMembersihkan sistem pencernaan, membersihkan darah, membunuh bakteri, mencegah infeksi dan detoksifikasi.BalancingMenyeimbangkan kadar asam dan Alkali di dalam tubuh.NourishingMeregenerasi sel darah merah dan menstimulasi regenerasi sel.PETUNJUK PEMAKAIAN:Larutkan 1 (satu) sloki/sendok makan dalam segelas air putih.Untuk anak-anak dibawah umur 12 tahun cukup larutkan 1/2 (setengah) sloki atau 1 (satu) sendok teh K-Liquid Chlorophyll.Minum 3 (tiga) gelas sehari.(sebelum makan/perut kosong).KEMASAN:1 botol isi 500ml Ekstrak Chlorophyll.UNTUK BELANJA ONLINE KLIK www.binmuhsingroup. UNTUK PEMESANAN HUBUNGI :HP: 085227044550 Tlp: 021-91913103 SMS ONLY: 081213143797@MyYM @MyFacebook @MyTwitter @MyYuwie @MyFriendsterbinmuhsin_group@yahoo.co.id
===

IAN FLEMING
University Chemical Laboratory, University of Cambridge
THE structure of chlorophyll is known in considerable detail. The correct gross structure was put forward by Hans Fischer1 and confirmed in a beautiful synthesis by R. B. Woodward2,3; the relative configuration of the methyl and propionic ester groups on ring D was shown to be trans by Ficken, Johns and Linstead4; the stereochemistry and absolute configuration of the phytyl group was shown by Burrell, Jackman and Weedon5,6 to be 2'-trans-7'R,11'R and the relative configuration at C10 was shown very recently by Wolf, Brockmann, Biere and Inhoffen7,8 to be that in which the methoxycarbonyl group is trans to the propionic ester side chain on C7. (A recent review9 mentions the first X-ray crystallographic structure determination of a chlorophyll derivative, phyllochlorin ester. Success has come late in this field, because of disordered structures in the crystals of chlorophyll derivatives. The review gives no information about the absolute configuration.) The absolute configuration at C7 and C8, however, was not-known and there were therefore two diastereoisomeric structures still possible for chlorophyll. This report provides the missing information and completes the structure of chlorophyll-a (and therefore of chlorophyll-b the configuration of which has been shown10 to be the same as that of chlorophyll-a).

  1. Fischer, H. , and Wenderoth, H. , Annalen, 545, 140 (1940). | ChemPort |
  2. Woodward, R. B. , Ayer, W. A. , Beaton, J. M. , Bickelhaupt, F. , Bonnett, R. , Buchschacher, P. , Closs, G. L. , Dutler, H. , Hannah, J. , Hauck, F. P. , Ito, S. , Langeman, A. , Le Goff, E. , Leimgruber, W. , Lwowski, W. , Sauer, J. , Valenta, Z. , and Volz, H. , J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 82, 3800 (1960). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
  3. Woodward, R. B. , Pure and Appl. Chem., 2, 383 (1961). | ChemPort |
  4. Ficken, G. E. , Johns, R. B. , and Linstead, R. P. , J. Chem. Soc., 2272 (1956).
  5. Burrell, J. W. K. , Jackman, L. M. , and Weedon, B. C. L. , Proc. Chem. Soc., 263 (1959).
  6. Crabbe, P. , Djerassi, C. , Eisenbraun, E. J. , and Liu, S. , Proc. Chem. Soc., 264 (1959).
  7. Wolf, H. , Brockmann, H. , Biere, H. , and Inhoffen, H. H. , Annalen, 704, 208 (1967). | ISI | ChemPort |
  8. Closs, G. L. , Katz, J. J. , Pennington, F. C. , Thomas, M. R. , and Strain, H. H. , J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 85, 3809 (1963). | Article | ISI | ChemPort |
  9. Hoppe, W. , Angew. Intern. Ed. (in English), 5, 267 (1966). | ISI |
  10. Fischer, H. , and Gibian, H. , Annalen, 552, 153 (1942). | ChemPort |
  11. Ficken, G. E. , Johns, R. B. , and Linstead, R. P. , J. Chem. Soc., 2280 (1956).
  12. Ault, A. , J. Chem. Ed., 42, 269 (1965) based on Theilacker, W. , and Winkler, H.-G. , Chem. Ber., 87, 690 (1954). | ISI | ChemPort |
  13. Asher, J. D. M. , and Sim, G. A. , J. Chem. Soc., 1584 and 6041 (1965).
  14. McPhail, A. T. , Rimmer, B. , Robertson, J. Monteath , and Sim, G. A. , J. Chem. Soc., B, 101 (1967).
  15. Nakazaki, M. , and Arakawa, H. , Proc. Chem. Soc., 151 (1962).
  16. Nakazaki, M. , and Arakawa, H. , Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 37, 464 (1964).
  17. Nakazaki, M. , Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 35, 1904 (1962).
  18. Nakazaki, M. , and Ikematsu, K. , Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 37, 459 (1964). | ISI | ChemPort |

Photosynthetic Pigments

APA ITU K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL?K-Liquid Chlorophyll adalah minuman kesehatan (Herbal Drink) yang bahan utamanya adalah sari klorofil dari daun Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), suatu herbal bernilai nutrisi tinggi.KOMPOSISI:Sari Daun Alfalfa yang mengandung : Sodium, Copper, Chlorophyllin, Vit A, B-Complex, C, E, Calsium, Magnesium, Pospor, Asam Amino, Alpha & Beta Carotine + UIE (Universe Induce Energy).MANFAAT/KEGUNAAN:Sebagai Anti Oxidant, baik untuk kesehatan mata, paru-paru, lambung, pencernaan dll.Satu sendok makan K-Liquid Chlorophyll sama dengan 1 Kg sayur.Memperlancar dan membersihkan darah dari segala bentuk racun dan zat kimia dalam tubuh.Berfungsi sebagai anti kanker.Menjaga keseimbangan Hormon dan keasaman dalam tubuh.Menghalangi pertumbuhan bakteri dan mempercepat penyembuhan luka.Meningkatkan daya serap nutrisi dan energi.FUNGSI UTAMA K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL:CleansingMembersihkan sistem pencernaan, membersihkan darah, membunuh bakteri, mencegah infeksi dan detoksifikasi.BalancingMenyeimbangkan kadar asam dan Alkali di dalam tubuh.NourishingMeregenerasi sel darah merah dan menstimulasi regenerasi sel.PETUNJUK PEMAKAIAN:Larutkan 1 (satu) sloki/sendok makan dalam segelas air putih.Untuk anak-anak dibawah umur 12 tahun cukup larutkan 1/2 (setengah) sloki atau 1 (satu) sendok teh K-Liquid Chlorophyll.Minum 3 (tiga) gelas sehari.(sebelum makan/perut kosong).KEMASAN:1 botol isi 500ml Ekstrak Chlorophyll.UNTUK BELANJA ONLINE KLIK www.binmuhsingroup. UNTUK PEMESANAN HUBUNGI :HP: 085227044550 Tlp: 021-91913103 SMS ONLY: 081213143797@MyYM @MyFacebook @MyTwitter @MyYuwie @MyFriendsterbinmuhsin_group@yahoo.co.id
===

Pigments are colorful compounds.

Pigments are chemical compounds which reflect only certain wavelengths of visible light. This makes them appear "colorful". Flowers, corals, and even animal skin contain pigments which give them their colors. More important than their reflection of light is the ability of pigments to absorb certain wavelengths.

Because they interact with light to absorb only certain wavelengths, pigments are useful to plants and other autotrophs --organisms which make their own food using photosynthesis. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, pigments are the means by which the energy of sunlight is captured for photosynthesis. However, since each pigment reacts with only a narrow range of the spectrum, there is usually a need to produce several kinds of pigments, each of a different color, to capture more of the sun's energy.


There are three basic classes of pigments.

  • Chlorophylls are greenish pigments which contain a porphyrin ring. This is a stable ring-shaped molecule around which electrons are free to migrate. Because the electrons move freely, the ring has the potential to gain or lose electrons easily, and thus the potential to provide energized electrons to other molecules. This is the fundamental process by which chlorophyll "captures" the energy of sunlight.

    There are several kinds of chlorophyll, the most important being chlorophyll "a". This is the molecule which makes photosynthesis possible, by passing its energized electrons on to molecules which will manufacture sugars. All plants, algae, and cyanobacteria which photosynthesize contain chlorophyll "a". A second kind of chlorophyll is chlorophyll "b", which occurs only in "green algae" and in the plants. A third form of chlorophyll which is common is (not surprisingly) called chlorophyll "c", and is found only in the photosynthetic members of the Chromista as well as the dinoflagellates. The differences between the chlorophylls of these major groups was one of the first clues that they were not as closely related as previously thought.

  • Carotenoids are usually red, orange, or yellow pigments, and include the familiar compound carotene, which gives carrots their color. These compounds are composed of two small six-carbon rings connected by a "chain" of carbon atoms. As a result, they do not dissolve in water, and must be attached to membranes within the cell. Carotenoids cannot transfer sunlight energy directly to the photosynthetic pathway, but must pass their absorbed energy to chlorophyll. For this reason, they are called accessory pigments. One very visible accessory pigment is fucoxanthin the brown pigment which colors kelps and other brown algae as well as thediatoms.

  • Phycobilins are water-soluble pigments, and are therefore found in the cytoplasm, or in the stroma of the chloroplast. They occur only in Cyanobacteria andRhodophyta.

    The picture at the right shows the two classes of phycobilins which may be extracted from these "algae". The vial on the left contains the bluish pigment phycocyanin, which gives the Cyanobacteria their name. The vial on the right contains the reddish pigment phycoerythrin, which gives the red algae their common name.

    Phycobilins are not only useful to the organisms which use them for soaking up light energy; they have also found use as research tools. Both pycocyanin and phycoerythrin fluoresce at a particular wavelength. That is, when they are exposed to strong light, they absorb the light energy, and release it by emitting light of a very narrow range of wavelengths. The light produced by this fluorescence is so distinctive and reliable, that phycobilins may be used as chemical "tags". The pigments are chemically bonded to antibodies, which are then put into a solution of cells. When the solution is sprayed as a stream of fine droplets past a laser and computer sensor, a machine can identify whether the cells in the droplets have been "tagged" by the antibodies. This has found extensive use in cancer research, for "tagging" tumor cells.

    sumber : http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/glossary/gloss3/pigments.html

  • Klorofil

    Klorofil adalah kelompok pigmen fotosintesis yang terdapat dalam tumbuhan, menyerap cahaya merah, biru dan ungu, serta merefleksikan cahaya hijau yang menyebabkan tumbuhan memperoleh ciri warnanya. Terdapat dalam kloroplas dan memanfaatkan cahaya yang diserap sebagai energi untuk reaksi-reaksi cahaya dalam proses fotosintesis.

    Klorofil A merupakan salah satu bentuk klorofil yang terdapat pada semua tumbuhan autotrof. Klorofil B terdapat pada ganggang hijau chlorophyta dan tumbuhan darat. Klorofil C terdapat pada ganggang coklat Phaeophyta serta diatome Bacillariophyta. Klorofil d terdapat pada ganggang merah Rhadophyta. Akibat adanya klorofil, tumbuhan dapat menyusun makanannya sendiri dengan bantuan cahaya matahari.


    APA ITU K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL?K-Liquid Chlorophyll adalah minuman kesehatan (Herbal Drink) yang bahan utamanya adalah sari klorofil dari daun Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), suatu herbal bernilai nutrisi tinggi.KOMPOSISI:Sari Daun Alfalfa yang mengandung : Sodium, Copper, Chlorophyllin, Vit A, B-Complex, C, E, Calsium, Magnesium, Pospor, Asam Amino, Alpha & Beta Carotine + UIE (Universe Induce Energy).MANFAAT/KEGUNAAN:Sebagai Anti Oxidant, baik untuk kesehatan mata, paru-paru, lambung, pencernaan dll.Satu sendok makan K-Liquid Chlorophyll sama dengan 1 Kg sayur.Memperlancar dan membersihkan darah dari segala bentuk racun dan zat kimia dalam tubuh.Berfungsi sebagai anti kanker.Menjaga keseimbangan Hormon dan keasaman dalam tubuh.Menghalangi pertumbuhan bakteri dan mempercepat penyembuhan luka.Meningkatkan daya serap nutrisi dan energi.FUNGSI UTAMA K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL:CleansingMembersihkan sistem pencernaan, membersihkan darah, membunuh bakteri, mencegah infeksi dan detoksifikasi.BalancingMenyeimbangkan kadar asam dan Alkali di dalam tubuh.NourishingMeregenerasi sel darah merah dan menstimulasi regenerasi sel.PETUNJUK PEMAKAIAN:Larutkan 1 (satu) sloki/sendok makan dalam segelas air putih.Untuk anak-anak dibawah umur 12 tahun cukup larutkan 1/2 (setengah) sloki atau 1 (satu) sendok teh K-Liquid Chlorophyll.Minum 3 (tiga) gelas sehari.(sebelum makan/perut kosong).KEMASAN:1 botol isi 500ml Ekstrak Chlorophyll.UNTUK BELANJA ONLINE KLIK www.binmuhsingroup. UNTUK PEMESANAN HUBUNGI :HP: 085227044550 Tlp: 021-91913103 SMS ONLY: 081213143797@MyYM @MyFacebook @MyTwitter @MyYuwie @MyFriendsterbinmuhsin_group@yahoo.co.id

    Chlorophyll

    Chlorophyll gives leaves their green color and absorbs light that is used in photosynthesis.
    Chlorophyll is found in high concentrations in chloroplasts of plant cells.
    Absorption maxima of chlorophylls against the spectrum of white light.[citation needed]
    SeaWiFS-derived average sea surfacechlorophyll for the period 1998 to 2006.

    Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Its name is derived from the Greek words chloros("green") and phyllon ("leaf"). Chlorophyll is an extremely important biomolecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to obtain energy from light. Chlorophyll absorbs light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, followed by the red portion. However, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum; hence the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues.[1] Chlorophyll was first isolated by Joseph Bienaimé Caventou and Pierre Joseph Pelletier in 1817.[2]

    Contents

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    ]Chlorophyll and photosynthesis

    Chlorophyll is vital for photosynthesis, which allows plants to obtain energy from light.

    Chlorophyll molecules are specifically arranged in and around photosystems that are embedded in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts. In these complexes, chlorophyll serves two primary functions. The function of the vast majority of chlorophyll (up to several hundred molecules per photosystem) is to absorb light and transfer that light energy by resonance energy transfer to a specific chlorophyll pair in the reaction center of the photosystems.

    The two currently accepted photosystem units are Photosystem II and Photosystem I, which have their own distinct reaction center chlorophylls, named P680 and P700, respectively.[3] These pigments are named after the wavelength (in nanometers) of their red-peak absorption maximum. The identity, function and spectral properties of the types of chlorophyll in each photosystem are distinct and determined by each other and the protein structure surrounding them. Once extracted from the protein into a solvent (such as acetone or methanol),[4][5][6] these chlorophyll pigments can be separated in a simple paper chromatography experiment, and, based on the number of polar groups between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, will chemically separate out on the paper.

    The function of the reaction center chlorophyll is to use the energy absorbed by and transferred to it from the other chlorophyll pigments in the photosystems to undergo a charge separation, a specific redox reaction in which the chlorophyll donates an electron into a series of molecular intermediates called anelectron transport chain. The charged reaction center chlorophyll (P680+) is then reduced back to its ground state by accepting an electron. In Photosystem II, the electron that reduces P680+ ultimately comes from the oxidation of water into O2 and H+ through several intermediates. This reaction is how photosynthetic organisms like plants produce O2 gas, and is the source for practically all the O2 in Earth's atmosphere. Photosystem I typically works in series with Photosystem II, thus the P700+ of Photosystem I is usually reduced, via many intermediates in the thylakoid membrane, by electrons ultimately from Photosystem II. Electron transfer reactions in the thylakoid membranes are complex, however; and the source of electrons used to reduce P700+ can vary.

    The electron flow produced by the reaction center chlorophyll pigments is used to shuttle H+ ions across the thylakoid membrane, setting up achemiosmotic potential used mainly to produce ATP chemical energy; and those electrons ultimately reduce NADP+ to NADPH a universal reductant used to reduce CO2 into sugars as well as for other biosynthetic reductions.

    Reaction center chlorophyll-protein complexes are capable of directly absorbing light and performing charge separation events without other chlorophyll pigments, but the absorption cross section (the likelihood of absorbing a photon under a given light intensity) is small. Thus, the remaining chlorophylls in the photosystem and antenna pigment protein complexes associated with the photosystems all cooperatively absorb and funnel light energy to the reaction center. Besides chlorophyll a, there are other pigments, called accessory pigments, which occur in these pigment-protein antenna complexes.

    There is as yet no satisfactory scientific explanation as to why chlorophyll has evolved to "ignore" green and near-green light, which are a major part of the visible spectrum.

    A green sea slug, Elysia chlorotica, has been found to use the chlorophyll it has eaten to perform photosynthesis for itself; no other animal has been found to have this ability.

    ]Chemical structure

    Space-filling model of the chlorophyll a molecule

    Chlorophyll is a chlorin pigment, which is structurally similar to and produced through the same metabolic pathway as other porphyrin pigments such asheme. At the center of the chlorin ring is a magnesium ion. For the structures depicted in this article, some of the ligands attached to the Mg2+ center are omitted for clarity. The chlorin ring can have several different side chains, usually including a long phytol chain. There are a few different forms that occur naturally, but the most widely distributed form in terrestrial plants is chlorophyll a. The general structure of chlorophyll a was elucidated by Hans Fischer in 1940, and by 1960, when most of the stereochemistry of chlorophyll a was known, Robert Burns Woodward published a total synthesis of the molecule as then known.[7] In 1967, the last remaining stereochemical elucidation was completed by Ian Fleming,[8] and in 1990 Woodward and co-authors published an updated synthesis.[9] In 2010, a near-infrared light photosynthetic pigment called Chlorophyll f may have been discovered in cyanobacteria and other oxygenic microorganisms that form stromatolites.[10][11] Based on NMR data, optical and mass spectra, it is thought to have a structure of C55H70O6N4Mg or [2-formyl]-chlorophyll a.[12]

    The different structures of chlorophyll are summarized below:

    Chlorophyll aChlorophyll bChlorophyll c1Chlorophyll c2Chlorophyll dChlorophyll f
    Molecular formulaC55H72O5N4MgC55H70O6N4MgC35H30O5N4MgC35H28O5N4MgC54H70O6N4MgC55H70O6N4Mg
    C2 group-CH3-CH3-CH3-CH3-CH3-CHO
    C3 group-CH=CH2-CH=CH2-CH=CH2-CH=CH2-CHO-CH=CH2
    C7 group-CH3-CHO-CH3-CH3-CH3-CH3
    C8 group-CH2CH3-CH2CH3-CH2CH3-CH=CH2-CH2CH3-CH2CH3
    C17 group-CH2CH2COO-Phytyl-CH2CH2COO-Phytyl-CH=CHCOOH-CH=CHCOOH-CH2CH2COO-Phytyl-CH2CH2COO-Phytyl
    C17-C18 bondSingle
    (chlorin)
    Single
    (chlorin)
    Double
    (porphyrin)
    Double
    (porphyrin)
    Single
    (chlorin)
    Single
    (chlorin)
    OccurrenceUniversalMostly plantsVarious algaeVarious algaeCyanobacteriaCyanobacteria
    Structure of chlorophyll a
    Structure of chlorophyll b
    Structure of chlorophyll d
    Structure of chlorophyll c1
    Structure of chlorophyll c2

    When leaves degreen in the process of plant senescence, chlorophyll is converted to a group of colourless tetrapyrroles known as nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCC's) with the general structure:

    Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites

    These compounds have also been identified in several ripening fruits.[13]

    ]Spectrophotometry

    Absorbance spectra of free chlorophyll a(green) and b (red) in a solvent. The spectra of chlorophyll molecules are slightly modifiedin vivo depending on specific pigment-protein interactions.

    Measurement of the absorption of light is complicated by the solvent used to extract it from plant material, which affects the values obtained,

    • In diethyl ether, chlorophyll a has approximate absorbance maxima of 430 nm and 662 nm, while chlorophyll b has approximate maxima of 453 nm and 642 nm.[14][specify]
    • The absorption peaks of chlorophyll a are at 665 nm and 465 nm. Chlorophyll a fluoresces at 673 nm (maximum) and 726 nm. The peak molar absorption coefficient of chlorophyll a exceeds 105 M−1 cm−1, which is among the highest for small-molecule organic compounds.[citation needed]

    By measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, plant ecophysiology can be investigated. Chlorophyll fluorometers are used by plant researchers to assess plant stress.]

    Biosynthesis

    In plants, chlorophyll may be synthesized from succinyl-CoA and glycine, although the immediate precursor to chlorophyll a and b is protochlorophyllide. InAngiosperms, the last step, conversion of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyll, is light-dependent and such plants are pale (etiolated) if grown in the darkness.Non-vascular plants and green algae have an additional light-independent enzyme and grow green in the darkness as well.

    Chlorophyll itself is bound to proteins and can transfer the absorbed energy in the required direction. Protochlorophyllide, occurs mostly in the free form, and, under light conditions, acts as photosensitizer, forming highly toxic free radicals. Hence, plants need an efficient mechanism of regulating the amount of chlorophyll precursor. In angiosperms, this is done at the step of aminolevulinic acid (ALA), one of the intermediate compounds in the biosynthesis pathway. Plants that are fed by ALA accumulate high and toxic levels of protochlorophyllide; so do the mutants with the damaged regulatory system.[15]

    Chlorosis is a condition in which leaves produce insufficient chlorophyll, turning them yellow. Chlorosis can be caused by a nutrient deficiency including iron - called iron chlorosis, or in a shortage ofmagnesium or nitrogen. Soil pH sometimes play a role in nutrient-caused chlorosis, many plants are adapted to grow in soils with specific pHs and their ability to absorb nutrients from the soil can be dependent on the soil pH.[16] Chlorosis can also be caused by pathogens including viruses, bacteria and fungal infections, or sap-sucking insects.

    ]Measuring chlorophyll

    The chlorophyll content of leaves can be non-destructively measured using hand-held, battery portable optical meters[17]. These meters measure the amount of energy absorbed by the leaf in the red and infrared region of the EMS. Absorption in the red band gives an estimate of the amount of chlorophyll present and the absorption in the infrared band is used to qualify and compensate for varying leaf thickness. The measurements made by these devices are simple, quick and relatively inexpensive. They now, typically, have large data storage capacity, averaging and graphical displays.


    Culinary use

    Chlorophyll is registered as a food additive (colorant), and its E number is E140. Chefs use chlorophyll to color a variety of foods and beverages green, such as pasta and absinthe.[18] Chlorophyll is not soluble in water and is first mixed with a small quantity of oil to obtain the desired result. Extracted Liquid Chlorophyll was considered unstable and always denatured, until 1997 when Frank S. & Lisa Sagliano used freeze-drying of liquid chlorophyll at the University of Florida and stabilized it as a powder, preserving it for future use.[19]

    ]See also

    []References

    1. ^ Speer, Brian R. (1997). "Photosynthetic Pigments". UCMP Glossary (online). University of California Museum of Paleontology. Retrieved 2010-07-17.
    2. ^ (September 1951). "Joseph Pelletier and Joseph Caventou". Journal of Chemical Education 28 (9): 454. doi:10.1021/ed028p454. ISSN 0021-9584.
    3. ^ Green, 1984
    4. ^ Marker, A. F. H. (1972). "The use of acetone and methanol in the estimation of chlorophyll in the presence of phaeophytin". Freshwater Biology 2: 361. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.1972.tb00377.x
    5. ^ Jeffrey, S. W.; Shibata, Kazuo (February 1969). "Some Spectral Characteristics of Chlorophyll c from Tridacna crocea Zooxanthellae". Biological Bulletin (Marine Biological Laboratory) 136 (1): 54–62.doi:10.2307/1539668
    6. ^ Gilpin, Linda (21 March 2001). "Methods for analysis of benthic photosynthetic pigment". School of Life Sciences, Napier University. Retrieved 2010-07-17.
    7. ^ Woodward RB, Ayer WA, Beaton JM, Bickelhaupt F, Bonnett R, Buchschacher P, Closs GL, Dutler H, Hannah J, Hauck FP, Itô S, Langemann A, Le Goff E, Leimgruber W, Lwowski W, Sauer J, Valenta Z, Volz H. (July 1960). "The total synthesis of chlorophyll". Journal of the American Chemical Society 82 (14): 3800–3802. doi:10.1021/ja01499a093.
    8. ^ Fleming, Ian (14 October 1967). "Absolute Configuration and the Structure of Chlorophyll". Nature 216: 151–152. doi:10.1038/216151a0.
    9. ^ Robert Burns Woodward, William A. Ayer, John M. Beaton, Friedrich Bickelhaupt, Raymond Bonnett, Paul Buchschacher, Gerhard L. Closs, Hans Dutler, John Hannah, Fred P. Hauck, et al. (1990). "The total synthesis of chlorophyll a" (PDF, 0.5 MB). Tetrahedron 46 (22): 7599–7659. doi:10.1016/0040-4020(90)80003-Z.
    10. ^ http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=new-form-chlorophyll
    11. ^ http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19338-infrared-chlorophyll-could-boost-solar-cells.html
    12. ^ Chen, M.; Schliep, M.; Willows, R. D.; Cai, Z. -L.; Neilan, B. A.; Scheer, H. (2010). "A Red-Shifted Chlorophyll". Science 329 (5997): 1318-1319. doi:10.1126/science.1191127. PMID 20724585. edit
    13. ^ Müller, Thomas; Ulrich, Markus; Ongania, Karl-Hans; Kräutler, Bernhard. (2007). "Colorless Tetrapyrrolic Chlorophyll Catabolites Found in Ripening Fruit Are Effective Antioxidants". Angewandte ChemieInternational Edition 46 (45): 8699–8702. doi:10.1002/anie.200703587. ISSN 1433-7851. PMID 17943948. PMC 2912502.
    14. ^ Gross, 1991
    15. ^ Meskauskiene R, Nater M, Goslings D, Kessler F, op den Camp R, Apel K. (23 October 2001). "FLU: A negative regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsisthaliana". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (22): 12826–12831. doi:10.1073/pnas.221252798. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 11606728. PMC 60138.
    16. ^ Duble, Richard L.. "Iron Chlorosis in Turfgrass". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2010-07-17.
    17. ^ http://www.adc.co.uk/Products/CCM-200_plus_Chlorophyll_Content_Meter
    18. ^ Adams, Jad (2004). Hideous absinthe : a history of the devil in a bottle. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780299200008.
    19. ^ US patent 5820916, Sagliano, Frank S. & Sagliano, Elizabeth A., "Method for growing and preserving wheatgrass nutrients and products thereof", issued 1998-10-13

    ]External links


    APA ITU K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL?K-Liquid Chlorophyll adalah minuman kesehatan (Herbal Drink) yang bahan utamanya adalah sari klorofil dari daun Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), suatu herbal bernilai nutrisi tinggi.KOMPOSISI:Sari Daun Alfalfa yang mengandung : Sodium, Copper, Chlorophyllin, Vit A, B-Complex, C, E, Calsium, Magnesium, Pospor, Asam Amino, Alpha & Beta Carotine + UIE (Universe Induce Energy).MANFAAT/KEGUNAAN:Sebagai Anti Oxidant, baik untuk kesehatan mata, paru-paru, lambung, pencernaan dll.Satu sendok makan K-Liquid Chlorophyll sama dengan 1 Kg sayur.Memperlancar dan membersihkan darah dari segala bentuk racun dan zat kimia dalam tubuh.Berfungsi sebagai anti kanker.Menjaga keseimbangan Hormon dan keasaman dalam tubuh.Menghalangi pertumbuhan bakteri dan mempercepat penyembuhan luka.Meningkatkan daya serap nutrisi dan energi.FUNGSI UTAMA K-LIQUID CHLOROPHYLL:CleansingMembersihkan sistem pencernaan, membersihkan darah, membunuh bakteri, mencegah infeksi dan detoksifikasi.BalancingMenyeimbangkan kadar asam dan Alkali di dalam tubuh.NourishingMeregenerasi sel darah merah dan menstimulasi regenerasi sel.PETUNJUK PEMAKAIAN:Larutkan 1 (satu) sloki/sendok makan dalam segelas air putih.Untuk anak-anak dibawah umur 12 tahun cukup larutkan 1/2 (setengah) sloki atau 1 (satu) sendok teh K-Liquid Chlorophyll.Minum 3 (tiga) gelas sehari.(sebelum makan/perut kosong).KEMASAN:1 botol isi 500ml Ekstrak Chlorophyll.UNTUK BELANJA ONLINE KLIK www.binmuhsingroup. UNTUK PEMESANAN HUBUNGI :HP: 085227044550 Tlp: 021-91913103 SMS ONLY: 081213143797@MyYM @MyFacebook @MyTwitter @MyYuwie @MyFriendsterbinmuhsin_group@yahoo.co.id

    Ujian Kesetaraan Paket A / B / C

    Ujian Kesetaraan Paket A / B / C
    Ijazah resmi bisa untuk kuliah cpns